Groch zwyczajny (Pisum sativum L.) – gatunek rośliny strączkowej jednorocznej z rodziny bobowatych (Fabaceae). Pochodzi z zachodniej Azji I Kaukazu, wschodniej i południowej Europy oraz Afryki Północnej. Jest uprawiany w wielu rejonach świata.
Split peas are an agricultural or culinary preparation consisting of the dried, peeled and split seeds of Pisum sativum. They are peeled, in that in addition to not being in the seed pod in which they grew, the splitting process also removes the dull colored outer skin of the pea. They come in yellow and green varieties. The peas are round when harvested and dried. Once dry, after the skin is removed, the natural split in the seed's cotyledon can be manually or mechanically separated, in part to encourage faster cooking due to increasing the surface area exposed to heat.
In markets, both the green and the yellow varieties of split pea are found in their respective selections, bagged by color. These two colors reflect some of the work of Gregor Mendel, who studied the inheritance of seed color in peas. The green phenotype is recessive to the yellow one. Traditionally, the genotype of purebred yellow is "YY" and that of green is "yy", and hybrids of the two, "Yy", have a yellow (dominant) phenotype.
Split peas are high in protein and low in fat, containing only one gram of fat per 350 calories (1,500 kJ) serving. Most of the calories come from protein and complex carbohydrates. The split pea is known to be a natural food source that contains some of the highest amounts of fiber, containing 26 grams of fiber per 100 gram portion (104% DV based on a 2,000 calories (8,400 kJ) diet). Fiber is known to help the digestive system and to make people feel full and satiated.